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Table 2 Clinical characteristics of patients with adrenal crisis at admission separated by different pathophysiological mechanisms

From: Clinical characteristics of adrenal crisis in adult population with and without predisposing chronic adrenal insufficiency: a retrospective cohort study

   Primary AI Central AI Others ALL
   (N = 23) (N = 136) (N = 345) (n = 504)
Age (years) Median (IQR) 59 (36–73) 65 (49–74) 73 (62–82) 71 (59–80)
Male   9 (39.1) 73 (53.7) 173 (50.1) 255 (50.6)
Indication for hospital admissiona Adrenal insufficiencyb 6 (26.1) 26 (19.1) 50 (14.5) 82 (16.3)
Pituitary disease 3 (13.0) 69 (50.7) 2 (0.6) 74 (14.7)
Cancer 3 (13.0) 2 (1.5) 69 (20.0) 74 (14.7)
Infection 2 (8.7) 10 (7.4) 44 (12.8) 56 (11.1)
Cardiovascular disease 0 (0.0) 2 (1.5) 19 (5.5) 21 (4.2)
Sepsis 1 (4.3) 3 (2.2) 13 (3.8) 17 (3.4)
Adrenal tumor 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 10 (2.9) 10 (2.0)
AI-related clinical symptomc 2 (8.7) 12 (8.8) 44 (12.8) 58 (11.5)
Comorbidityd Cardiovascular disease 7 (30.4) 40 (29.4) 109 (31.6) 156 (31.0)
Infection 5 (21.7) 26 (19.1) 65 (18.8) 96 (19.0)
Diabetes 1 (4.3) 22 (16.2) 57 (16.5) 80 (15.9)
Cancer 1 (4.3) 0 (0.0) 66 (19.1) 67 (13.3)
Hypothyroidism 2 (8.7) 27 (19.9) 24 (7.0) 53 (10.5)
Autoimmune disease 0 (0.0) 1 (0.7) 32 (9.3) 33 (6.5)
Peptic ulcer 2 (8.7) 9 (6.6) 21 (6.1) 32 (6.3)
COPD or asthma 1 (4.3) 4 (2.9) 21 (6.1) 26 (5.2)
Renal failure 0 (0.0) 5 (3.7) 21 (6.1) 26 (5.2)
Therapeutic GC regimen HC 18 (78.3) 107 (78.7) 203 (58.8) 328 (65.3)
mPSL 4 (17.4) 14 (10.3) 56 (16.2) 74 (14.7)
DEX 1 (4.3) 6 (4.4) 37 (10.7) 44 (8.7)
Others 0 (0.0) 9 (6.6) 49 (14.2) 58 (11.3)
  1. Abbreviations: AI adrenal insufficiency, IQR interquatile, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, GC glucocorticoid, HC hydrocortisone, mPSL methylprednisolone, DEX dexamethasone
  2. aIdentified as disease or symptom requiring admission decision, registered according to the Japanese diagnostic procedure combination (DPC) system
  3. bConsidering the following admission and therapeutic GC administration, this group is consistent with hospitalization due to adrenal crisis
  4. cConsisted of unspecified coma, hyponatremia, unspecified hypotension, volume depletion, shock, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, unspecified fever and hypoglycemia
  5. dIdentification of comorbidity is based on comorbidity lists at admission, registered according to the Japanese diagnostic procedure combination (DPC) system