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Table 2 Comparison of risk factors for Vitamin D deficiency

From: Vitamin D status in healthy black African adults at a tertiary hospital in Nairobi, Kenya: a cross sectional study

  Deficient Non-deficient P value Crude O.R (C.I) P value Adjusted O.R. (C.I)
Gender: N (%)
 Femalea 17 (27.4%) 45 (72.6%)     
 Male 27 (14.1%) 164 (85.9%) 0.03 0.463 (0.212–0.784) 0.04 0.481 (0.233–0.933)
Sunshine exposure: N (%)  
  ≤ 1 h dailya 66 (76.7%) 20 (23.3%)     
 1–3 h daily 57 (81.4%) 13 (18.6%) 0.48 0.753 (0.344–0.1647) 0.13 0.893 (0.0.658–4.912)
  > 3 h daily 86 (88.7%) 11 (11.3%) 0.03 0.422 (0.189–0.942) 0.08 0.623 (0.487–3.889)
Oily fish intake: N (%)
 Nonea 30 (19.9%) 121 (80.1%)     
  ≥ once a week 14 (13.7%) 88 (86.3%) 0.20 0.642 (0.231–1.281)   
Sunscreen use: N (%)
 Nonea 42 (17.6%) 197 (82.4%)     
 Yes 2 (14.3%) 12 (85.7%) 0.75 0.782 (0.169–3.623)   
  1. aReference group, O.R Odds ratio, C.I Confidence interval