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Table 4 Factors associated with Body Mass Index (BMI)

From: Impact of malnutrition on systemic immune and metabolic profiles in type 2 diabetes

  Normal BMI Low BMI pValue
Age in Years 39 (33.5–45) 37 (31–43.5) 0.270
Gender [Male] 22 (50%) 22 (50%) > 0.950
Albumin (g/dl) 4.3 (3.9–4.5) 3.1 (2.9–3.2) < 0.001
Urea (mg/dl) 20 (17–22) 22.5 (18.5–26) 0.068
Creatinine (mg/dl) 0.9 (0.7–1) 0.9 (0.8–1) 0.280
ALT (U/L) 20 (17–26) 25 (18–31) 0.204
AST (U/L) 29 (21.5–36) 27 (21.5–42) > 0.950
Serum triglycerides (mg/dl) 89.5 (75–131) 97.5 (79–154) 0.155
HDL (ml/dl) 35.5 (31–43) 41 (33.5–47) 0.162
LDL (ml/dl) 100 (92–125) 104 (85.5–136) 0.858
RBG (mg/dl) 207 (200–233.5) 271 (224–300) < 0.001
HbA1c 8.7 (7.5–11.3) 11.7 (9.7–13.3) < 0.001
Insulin (pg/ml) 52.2 (31.3–90) 82.8 (44.1–187.2) 0.002
Glucagon (pg/ml) 167.9 (150.9–215.8) 250.1 (185–289.7) < 0.001
Adiponectin (pg/ml) 160,974 (65794–303,991.3) 266,212.7 (96,521.4–451,000.8) 0.023
Adipsin (pg/ml) 17,841.1 (6995.9–45,530.8) 29,648 (12,397.1–71,191.6) 0.021
Resistin (pg/ml) 2437.2 (1539.6–4154) 2828.6 (1988.6–4534.2) 0.374
Leptin (pg/ml) 2003.2 (1605.1–4767.4) 1633.6 (1094.6–2819.1) 0.032
Visfatin (pg/ml) 2978.5 (1660.1–4881.3) 3648.7 (1949.3–4162.3) 0.710
IFN-γ (pg/ml) 372.4 (312.4–410.1) 330.8 (267.2–372.4) 0.004
IL-2 (pg/ml) 173.9 (128.1–219.5) 152.8 (82.4–171.2) 0.010
TNF-α (pg/ml) 318.4 (245–416.2) 265 (211.5–336.5) 0.032
IL-17A (pg/ml) 35.3 (29.2–47.7) 25.5 (18.6–53.8) 0.026
IL-17F (pg/ml) 186 (85.4–238.6) 128.3 (82.9–164.3) 0.041
IL-22 (pg/ml) 97.8 (62–129) 70.1 (37.5–125.2) 0.243
IL-4 (pg/ml) 49 (31.5–128.8) 33.5 (31.1–35.5) 0.006
IL-5 (pg/ml) 120.6 (114.3–126.9) 96.9 (71.1–124.3) 0.014
IL-13 (pg/ml) 78.2 (43.4–98) 33.3 (22.4–81.9) 0.008
IL-10 (pg/ml) 111.4 (102.1–119.2) 96 (90–111.4) < 0.001
TGF-β (pg/ml) 78.2 (43.4–98) 33.3 (22.4–81.9) 0.008
GM-CSF (pg/ml) 206.9 (154.4–252.8) 151.3 (74.5–220.1) 0.015
G-CSF (pg/ml) 111.4 (99.9–127.5) 95.4 (73–109.1) 0.001
MCP-1 (pg/ml) 234.8 (175.7–327.7) 165.4 (72.1–247.3) < 0.001
MIP-1β (pg/ml) 102 (38.9–208.3) 65.3 (49.5–79.5) 0.047
IL-6 (pg/ml) 78.3 (49.2–121.1) 38.1 (26.6–48.8) < 0.001
IL-7 (pg/ml) 58.2 (49.4–98.2) 64.5 (32.4–85.5) 0.341
IL-8 (pg/ml) 284.6 (145.6–322.3) 79.1 (42.6–134.6) < 0.001
IL-12 (pg/ml) 98.2 (90.1–118.2) 90.1 (82.2–104.9) 0.026
IL-1β (pg/ml) 66.8 (50–125.3) 69.4 (54.4–74.7) 0.455
  1. Mann Whitney U test was used at 5% level of significance