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Table 5 Factors associated with Lower Body Mass Index (BMI)

From: Impact of malnutrition on systemic immune and metabolic profiles in type 2 diabetes

  OR (95% CI) p Value aOR (95% CI) p Value
Age in Years 0.97 (0.93–1.02) 0.231   
Gender [Male] 1.00 (0.43–2.31) > 0.950   
Urea (mg/dl) 1.98 (0.74–5.30) 0.176 1.83 (0.67–5.00) 0.236
Creatinine (mg/dl) 3.42 (0.57–20.58) 0.18 3.21 (0.51–20.07) 0.213
ALT (U/L) 1.49 (0.74–2.99) 0.262 1.45 (0.71–2.95) 0.311
AST (U/L) 1.14 (0.64–2.03) 0.651 1.12 (0.62–2.01) 0.711
Serum triglycerides (mg/dl) 1.43 (0.80–2.56) 0.227 1.63 (0.87–3.06) 0.125
HDL (ml/dl) 1.70 (0.56–5.15) 0.348 1.78 (0.58–5.50) 0.316
LDL (ml/dl) 1.12 (0.43–2.92) 0.816 1.13 (0.43–2.97) 0.81
RBG (mg/dl) 92.36 (9.17–929.76) < 0.001 91.26 (9.03–922.12) < 0.001
HbA1c 14.40 (3.43–60.53) < 0.001 15.66 (3.61–67.88) < 0.001
Insulin (pg/ml) 1.94 (1.27–2.94) 0.002 1.93 (1.25–2.97) 0.003
Glucagon (pg/ml) 5.33 (2.00–14.21) < 0.001 5.17 (1.92–13.89) 0.001
Adiponectin (pg/ml) 1.44 (1.04–1.98) 0.026 1.44 (1.04–1.99) 0.027
Adipsin (pg/ml) 1.44 (1.10–1.90) 0.009 1.52 (1.14–2.05) 0.005
Resistin (pg/ml) 1.28 (0.78–2.10) 0.332 1.33 (0.80–2.21) 0.272
Leptin (pg/ml) 0.60 (0.38–0.96) 0.035 0.59 (0.37–0.95) 0.031
Visfatin (pg/ml) 1.05 (0.69–1.60) 0.821 1.01 (0.66–1.55) > 0.950
IFN-γ (pg/ml) 0.21 (0.06–0.68) 0.009 0.19 (0.06–0.64) 0.007
IL-2 (pg/ml) 0.37 (0.18–0.77) 0.008 0.35 (0.16–0.75) 0.007
TNF-α (pg/ml) 0.31 (0.12–0.79) 0.015 0.32 (0.13–0.84) 0.02
IL-17A (pg/ml) 0.55 (0.31–0.97) 0.04 0.57 (0.32–1.02) 0.057
IL-17F (pg/ml) 0.59 (0.33–1.06) 0.078 0.58 (0.32–1.05) 0.073
IL-22 (pg/ml) 0.71 (0.43–1.17) 0.177 0.64 (0.38–1.08) 0.095
IL-4 (pg/ml) 0.18 (0.07–0.46) < 0.001 0.18 (0.07–0.46) < 0.001
IL-5 (pg/ml) 0.16 (0.05–0.52) 0.003 0.17 (0.05–0.56) 0.004
IL-13 (pg/ml) 0.52 (0.32–0.82) 0.005 0.48 (0.29–0.78) 0.003
IL-10 (pg/ml) 0.06 (0.01–0.46) 0.006 0.05 (0.01–0.39) 0.004
TGF-β (pg/ml) 0.52 (0.32–0.82) 0.005 0.48 (0.29–0.78) 0.003
GM-CSF (pg/ml) 0.55 (0.33–0.92) 0.022 0.55 (0.33–0.93) 0.024
G-CSF (pg/ml) 0.19 (0.06–0.62) 0.006 0.19 (0.06–0.67) 0.009
MCP-1 (pg/ml) 0.41 (0.24–0.71) 0.001 0.41 (0.23–0.71) 0.002
MIP-1β (pg/ml) 0.64 (0.42–0.97) 0.034 0.65 (0.43–0.99) 0.045
IL-6 (pg/ml) 0.25 (0.14–0.48) < 0.001 0.24 (0.13–0.46) < 0.001
IL-7 (pg/ml) 0.60 (0.34–1.07) 0.085 0.57 (0.31–1.06) 0.076
IL-8 (pg/ml) 0.29 (0.18–0.49) < 0.001 0.28 (0.17–0.48) < 0.001
IL-12 (pg/ml) 0.36 (0.11–1.13) 0.081 0.39 (0.12–1.27) 0.118
IL-1β (pg/ml) 0.51 (0.26–0.99) 0.048 0.50 (0.25–0.99) 0.048
  1. OR Univariate Odds Ratio; aOR Multivariate Odds Ratio adjusted for Age and Gender