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Pituitary and Neuroendocrinology

This section concerns disorders of the pituitary-hypothalamic axis and neuroendocrinology; Articles concerning prevention, diagnosis and management, as well as related molecular genetics, and pathophysiology are considered within this section.

  1. Patients with Crooke cell tumours present with features of Cushing syndrome or mass effect. There are few reports of patients with Crooke cell tumours presenting due to apoplexy. All of them had silent tumours...

    Authors: Nipun Lakshitha de Silva, Noel Somasundaram, Roshana Constantine and Himashi Kularatna

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2021 21:93

    Content type: Case report

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  2. Subclinical Cushing’s disease (SCD) is defined by corticotroph adenoma-induced mild hypercortisolism without typical physical features of Cushing’s disease. Infection is an important complication associated wi...

    Authors: Yuki Yamauchi, Hiraku Kameda, Kazuno Omori, Michio Tani, Kyu Yong Cho, Akinobu Nakamura, Hideaki Miyoshi, Shinya Tanaka and Tatsuya Atsumi

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2021 21:84

    Content type: Case report

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  3. Diabetes insipidus (DI) can be a common cause of polydipsia and polyuria. Here, we present a case of congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (CNDI) accompanied with central diabetes insipidus (CDI) secondary...

    Authors: Wei Zhang, Yimin Shen, Yuezhong Ren, Yvbo Xin and Lijun Wang

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2021 21:78

    Content type: Case report

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  4. Transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) to resect an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting pituitary adenoma is the first-line treatment for Cushing’s disease (CD), with increasing usage of endoscopic transspheno...

    Authors: Zarina Brady, Aoife Garrahy, Claire Carthy, Michael W. O’Reilly, Christopher J. Thompson, Mark Sherlock, Amar Agha and Mohsen Javadpour

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2021 21:36

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are a novel class of oncological agents which are used to treat a number of malignancies. To date seven agents have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) t...

    Authors: Christine Newman, Oratile Kgosidalwa, Osamah A. Hakami, Carmel Kennedy, Liam Grogan and Amar Agha

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2021 21:33

    Content type: Case report

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  6. Cushing’s syndrome occurs due to overproduction of cortisol from adrenal glands. Endogenous hypercortisolemia can occur secondary to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) dependent as well as independent causes. ...

    Authors: Piyumi Sachindra Alwis Wijewickrama, Vithiya Ratnasamy, Noel P. Somasundaram, Manilka Sumanatilleke and Sathyajith Buddhika Ambawatte

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2021 21:29

    Content type: Case report

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  7. Primary central nervous system lymphoma is a rare extra-nodal lymphoma of the central nervous system. Primary central nervous system lymphoma lesions usually appear in the vicinity of the ventricle, and there ...

    Authors: Ken Takao, Ayaka Tani, Tetsuya Suwa, Yayoi Kuwabara-Ohmura, Kenta Nonomura, Yanyan Liu, Takehiro Kato, Masami Mizuno, Takuo Hirota, Mayumi Enya, Katsumi Iizuka, Yukio Horikawa, Chiemi Saigo, Yusuke Kito, Tatsuhiko Miyazaki, Naoyuki Ohe…

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2021 21:13

    Content type: Case report

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  8. Endogenous Cushing’s syndrome (CS) results in increased cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. So far, most studies focussed on distinct disease entities rather than the integrity of the CV system. We he...

    Authors: Kristina Ehrlich, Caroline Morbach, Theresa Reiter, Peter Ulrich Heuschmann, Anke Hannemann, Martin Fassnacht, Stefan Störk, Stefanie Hahner and Timo Deutschbein

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2021 21:11

    Content type: Study protocol

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  9. Noonan syndrome is an inherited disease involving multiple systems. More than 15 related genes have been discovered, among which LZTR1 was discovered recently. However, the pathogenesis and inheritance pattern of...

    Authors: Xiu Zhao, Zhuoguang Li, Li Wang, Zhangzhang Lan, Feifei Lin, Wenyong Zhang and Zhe Su

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2021 21:2

    Content type: Case report

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  10. Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a multisymptomatic, rare, genetic, neurodevelopmental disorder in adults mainly characterized by hyperphagia, cognitive dysfunction, behavioral problems and risk of morbid obesit...

    Authors: Hasanain Hamid Shukur, Yolanda B. de Rijke, Elisabeth F. C. van Rossum, Laith Hussain-Alkhateeb and Charlotte Höybye

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2020 20:166

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Previous studies have shown inconsistent results about the usefulness of bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling (BIPSS) in differential diagnosis of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-dependent Cushing syn...

    Authors: Hao Wang, Ying Ba, Qian Xing and Run-Ce Cai

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2020 20:143

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Primary Empty Sella (PES) syndrome is an increasingly common disorder, mostly diagnosed as an incidental finding during brain imaging scans. We intended to review the clinical management and hormonal profile o...

    Authors: Aishah A. Ekhzaimy, Muhammad Mujammami, Shabana Tharkar, Manahel A. Alansary and Daad Al Otaibi

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2020 20:142

    Content type: Research article

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  13. The growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 (GH/IGF-1) axis is critical for the regulation of children’s growth and development. Serum IGF-1 concentrations are usually low in individuals with idiopathic sh...

    Authors: Qianqian Zhao, Mei Zhang, Baolan Ji, Yuntian Chu, Hui Pan, Wenhua Yan and Bo Ban

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2020 20:119

    Content type: Research article

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  14. The escalating prevalence of adrenal incidentaloma (AI) has been associated with the improvement of radiologic techniques and widespread imaging in aging population. It is currently unclear whether patients wi...

    Authors: Ana Podbregar, Andrej Janez, Katja Goricar and Mojca Jensterle

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2020 20:118

    Content type: Research article

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  1. Acromegaly is a rare, chronic and severe disease. Drug therapy including somatostatin analogues (SAs), dopamine receptor agonists and growth hormone receptor antagonists (pegvisomant, PEG) are commonly used to...

    Authors: Lingyun Ma, Daohuang Luo, Ting Yang, Songtao Wu, Min Li, Chaoyang Chen, Shuang Zhou, Lingyue Ma, Ye Wu, Ying Zhou and Yimin Cui

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2020 20:126

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Statins are the first-line pharmaceutical agent in the management of hypercholesterolemia and cardiovascular (CV) risk reduction, and the most commonly prescribed class of drugs worldwide. Studies describing C...

    Authors: Ezra S. Hornik, Anne E. Altman-Merino, Andrew W. Koefoed, Kayla M. Meyer, Isabella B. Stone, Jessica A. Green, Gordon H. Williams, Gail K. Adler and Jonathan S. Williams

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2020 20:105

    Content type: Study protocol

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  3. Recently, CaMKIV has been identified as a potential regulator of skeletal muscle glucose metabolism, it can also affect insulin gene expression in pancreas. However, its effects on adipose insulin resistance h...

    Authors: Jiali Liu, Ruihua Yang, Hao Meng, Ting Zhou and Qian He

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2020 20:104

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is now considered the best serum biomarker of ovarian reserve, while basal sex hormones are classic markers used for assessing ovarian reserve. The interaction between AMH and sex ...

    Authors: Ping-Ping Lv, Min Jin, Jin-Peng Rao, Jian Chen, Li-Quan Wang, Chang-Chang Huang, Song-Qing Yang, Qiu-Ping Yao, Lei Feng, Jin-Ming Shen and Chun Feng

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2020 20:101

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Autoimmune hypophysitis is a rare disease characterized by the infiltration of lymphocytic cells into the pituitary gland. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and 18F-2-fluorodeoxy sorbitol (FDS) positron emission tomog...

    Authors: Ziren Kong, Yu Wang, Wenbin Ma and Xin Cheng

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2020 20:84

    Content type: Case report

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  6. Acute compartment syndrome is a rare complication of severe hypothyroidism. If the symptoms are not recognized promptly and treatment initiated immediately, there is a high risk of permanent damage. Only few o...

    Authors: Nicole M. van Veelen, Stefan Fischli, Frank J.P. Beeres, Timo Eisenhut, Reto Babst, Christoph Henzen and Björn-Christian Link

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2020 20:80

    Content type: Case report

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  7. Radioiodine (RAI) treatment for hyperthyroidism is a very common modality, chosen by physicians worldwide. The outcome of the therapy, however, is not always predictable. While rendering a patient hypo- or eut...

    Authors: Albert Stachura, Tomasz Gryn, Bernadetta Kałuża, Tadeusz Budlewski and Edward Franek

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2020 20:77

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy is an important treatment option for Graves’ disease (GD), the main side effect of RAI treatment is hypothyroidism, and the factors resulting in hypothyroidism are still contro...

    Authors: Rui-Ting Hu, De-Shan Liu and Bin Li

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2020 20:76

    Content type: Research article

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  9. DAX1 mutations are related to the X-linked form of adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC) in infancy and to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) in puberty. We report a male patient affected by X-linked AHC who present...

    Authors: Boo Kyeong Seo, Seul Ah. Jeong, Jae Young Cho, Ji Sook Park, Ji-Hyun Seo, Eun Sil Park, Jae-Young Lim, Hyang-Ok Woo and Hee-Shang Youn

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2020 20:73

    Content type: Case report

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  10. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women of childbearing age. This study aimed to compare the effects of lifestyle interventions on anthropometric, clinical, and biochemi...

    Authors: Somayeh Abdolahian, Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani, Mina Amiri, Delaram Ghodsi, Razieh Bidhendi Yarandi, Mahdi Jafari, Hamid Alavi Majd and Fatemeh Nahidi

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2020 20:71

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Prediabetes is associated with a high risk of colon cancer, and abdominal obesity, which can result in the secretion of several obesity-related adipocytokines, is an independent influencing factor for colonic ...

    Authors: Lili Deng, Xiaotong Zhao, Mingwei Chen, Hua Ji, Qunhui Zhang, Ruofei Chen and Yalei Wang

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2020 20:63

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Pregnancy-induced Cushing’s syndrome (CS) with an adrenocortical adenoma overexpressing luteinizing hormone (LH)/human choriogonadotropin (hCG) receptors (LHCGR) has been rarely reported in the literatures. Th...

    Authors: Shaohua Li, Chen Yang, Jing Fan, Yao Yao, Xiaomei Lv, Ying Guo and Shaoling Zhang

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2020 20:62

    Content type: Case report

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  13. Cardiac damage triggered by severe hypocalcemia is well known. However, the role of chronic hypoparathyroidism (HP) and pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) in cardiac health is still unclear. We investigated the ef...

    Authors: Yabing Wang, Kun He, Ou Wang, Xue Lin, Sixing Chen, Yan Jiang, Mei Li, Weibo Xia and Xiaoping Xing

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2020 20:61

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex multifactorial disorder, affecting millions of women worldwide. The role of genetic polymorphisms of the KISS1 gene on the development of PCOS is still obscure. This ...

    Authors: Maha H. Daghestani, Mazin H. Daghestani, Mamoon Daghistani, Khushboo Ambreen, Fadwa S. Albalawi, Lina M. AlNeghery and Arjumand S. Warsy

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2020 20:59

    Content type: Research article

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  15. The aim of this paper is to present the development of the Feel4Diabetes Healthy Diet Score and to evaluate its clinical validity.

    Authors: Eeva Virtanen, Jemina Kivelä, Katja Wikström, Christina-Paulina Lambrinou, Pilar De Miguel-Etayo, Nele Huys, Katalin Vraukó-Tóth, Luis A. Moreno, Natalya Usheva, Nevena Chakarova, Sándorné A. Rado, Violeta Iotova, Konstantinos Makrilakis, Greet Cardon, Stavros Liatis, Yannis Manios…

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2020 20(Suppl 2):46

    Content type: Research

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    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 20 Supplement 2

  16. Lanreotide autogel is a somatostatin analog (SSA) approved for the treatment of acromegaly in 73 countries worldwide; however, it is not yet approved in China. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficac...

    Authors: Zhenmei An, Ting Lei, Lian Duan, Pei Hu, Zhongping Gou, Lihui Zhang, Lucie Durand-Gasselin, Nan Wang, Yan Wang and Feng Gu

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2020 20:57

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Satisfactory tools to preclude low-risk patients from intensive diagnostic testing for primary aldosteronism (PA) are lacking. Therefore, we aimed to develop a decision tool to determine which patients with di...

    Authors: Monique E. A. M. van Kleef, Frank L. J. Visseren, Jan Westerink, Michiel L. Bots, Peter J. Blankestijn, Yolanda van der Graaf and Wilko Spiering

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2020 20:56

    Content type: Research article

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  18. In 2007, Omnitrope® was the first biosimilar recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) to be approved in Sweden for treatment in adults and children. Over 10 years’ safety and effectiveness data for biosimilar r...

    Authors: Elena Lundberg, Berit Kriström, Hichem Zouater, Anna Deleskog and Charlotte Höybye

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2020 20:55

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Endocrine disorders in patients after heart transplantation (HT) remain understudied. We aimed to assess endocrine profiles and management of HT recipients in the early post- transplant period.

    Authors: Matej Rakusa, Bojan Vrtovec, Gregor Poglajen, Andrej Janez and Mojca Jensterle

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2020 20:54

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Primary hyperparathyroidism is a rare condition of disease which can seldomly present as giant retrotrhyroideal cysts, complicating the localization of the adenoma to resect.

    Authors: Christoph Werner, Amelie Lupp, Gabriele Mtuka-Pardon, Christof Kloos, Gunter Wolf, René Aschenbach, Anika Biermann, Martin Freesmeyer and Philipp Seifert

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2020 20:53

    Content type: Case report

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  21. The prevalence of childhood-onset growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD) is estimated to be approximately 1 in 5000 or more, with the cause unknown in most cases (idiopathic isolated GHD). However, additional di...

    Authors: Nami Kojima, Nobuyuki Koriyama, Akinori Tokito, Kazuma Ogiso, Koshi Kusumoto, Satoshi Kubo and Yoshihiko Nishio

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2020 20:50

    Content type: Case report

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  22. Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 2 (APS-2) is a rare and complex clinical entity, and little is known about its etiology and progression.

    Authors: Hidefumi Inaba, Hiroyuki Ariyasu, Hiroshi Iwakura, Chiaki Kurimoto, Yoko Ueda, Shinsuke Uraki, Ken Takeshima, Yasushi Furukawa, Shuhei Morita, Yoshiaki Nakayama, Takuya Ohashi, Hidefumi Ito, Yoshiharu Nishimura and Takashi Akamizu

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2020 20:47

    Content type: Case report

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  23. Overactivation of renin-aldosterone-angiotensin system (RAS) is part of the pathogenesis of obesity-associated hypertension. Evidences have shown that weight loss can result in reduction in blood pressure and ...

    Authors: Preaw Suwannasrisuk, Patchaya Boonchaya-anant, Natnicha Houngngam, Suthep Udomsawaengsup and Sarat Sunthornyothin

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2020 20:45

    Content type: Research article

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  24. The voltage-gated potassium channel Kv7.1 encoded by KCNQ1 is located in both cardiac myocytes and insulin producing beta cells. Loss-of-function mutations in KCNQ1 causes long QT syndrome along with glucose-stim...

    Authors: Jinyi Zhang, Christian R. Juhl, Louise Hylten-Cavallius, Morten Salling-Olsen, Allan Linneberg, Jens Juul Holst, Torben Hansen, Jørgen K. Kanters and Signe S. Torekov

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2020 20:38

    Content type: Case report

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  25. Whether lower dose cabergoline therapy for hyperprolactinemia increases risk of valvular dysfunction remains controversial. We examined valvular abnormalities among asymptomatic adults with hyperprolactinemia ...

    Authors: Amer Budayr, Thida C. Tan, Joan C. Lo, Jonathan G. Zaroff, Grace H. Tabada, Jingrong Yang and Alan S. Go

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2020 20:25

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Adrenal insufficiency (AI) in hospitalized patients is a fatal condition if left undiagnosed. Most patients may require an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test to facilitate AI diagnosis. We aim...

    Authors: Worapaka Manosroi, Natapong Kosachunhanan and Pichitchai Atthakomol

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2020 20:24

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC) is an X-linked disorder that affects the adrenal cortex and hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG), leading to primary adrenocortical insufficiency (PAI) and hypogonadotro...

    Authors: Michelle Cerutti C. Vargas, Felipe Scipião Moura, Cecília P. Elias, Sara R. Carvalho, Nelson Rassi, Ilda S. Kunii, Magnus R. Dias-da-Silva and Flavia Amanda Costa-Barbosa

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2020 20:21

    Content type: Case report

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  28. Primary aldosteronism (PA) plus subclinical Cushing’s syndrome (SCS), PASCS, has occasionally been reported. We aimed to clinically characterize patients with PASCS who are poorly profiled.

    Authors: Shigemitsu Yasuda, Yusuke Hikima, Yusuke Kabeya, Shinichiro Iida, Yoichi Oikawa, Masashi Isshiki, Ikuo Inoue, Akira Shimada and Mitsuhiko Noda

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2020 20:9

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) may be asymptomatic, and some may present with normocalcemic PHPT (NPHPT). Patients with vitamin D deficiency may also be asymptomatic, with normal calcium and ...

    Authors: Yanhong Guo, Qin Wang, Chunyan Lu, Pianpian Fan, Jing Li, Ximing Luo and Decai Chen

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2020 20:5

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) is a main component of the lectin pathway of the complement system. Lower MBL levels are associated with, among other conditions, hypothyroidism and adverse pregnancy outcomes. In t...

    Authors: Malgorzata Karbownik-Lewinska, Jan Stepniak, Magdalena Marcinkowska, Adrian Krygier and Andrzej Lewinski

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2020 20:1

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Endocrine Disorders 2020 20:82

  31. Irisin is a myokine that leads to increased energy expenditure by stimulating the browning of white adipose tissue. We aimed to investigate the association of serum irisin levels with metabolic parameters in m...

    Authors: Lizhi Tang, Yuzhen Tong, Fang Zhang, Guilin Chen, Yun Cong Zhang, John Jobin and Nanwei Tong

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2019 19:147

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Abscess in the thyroid gland is a rare but severe infectious disease. The condition can have anatomic or iatrogenic underlying causes. If untreated it could be fatal. Pathogens vary considerably. Treatment is ...

    Authors: Henrik Falhammar, Göran Wallin and Jan Calissendorff

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2019 19:130

    Content type: Case report

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  33. Exercise is known to induce multiple beneficial conditioning processes. Conversely, although exercise may generate several hormonal effects, an intrinsic hormonal conditioning process has not been reported. In...

    Authors: Flavio A. Cadegiani and Claudio E. Kater

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2019 19:117

    Content type: Research article

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  34. We report a novel mutation within the StAR gene, causing congenital adrenal hyperplasia, with the so far unreported association with heterochromia iridis.

    Authors: Vera Splittstösser, Felix Schreiner, Bettina Gohlke, Maik Welzel, Paul-Martin Holterhus and Joachim Woelfle

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2019 19:116

    Content type: Case report

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  35. Barakat syndrome is an autosomal dominant rare genetic disease caused by haploinsufficiency of the GATA binding protein 3 (GATA3) gene. It is also known as HDR syndrome, and is characterized by varying degrees of...

    Authors: Anne D. D. Joseph, Nirmala D. Sirisena, Thirunavukarasu Kumanan, Vathualan Sujanitha, Veronika Strelow, Raina Yamamoto, Stefan Wieczorek and Vajira H. W. Dissanayake

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2019 19:111

    Content type: Case report

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  36. Abnormal levels of liver enzymes, particularly aminotransferases, are prognostic features of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Considering the important role of dietary intakes in development of NAFLD...

    Authors: Parvin Mirmiran, Zahra Gaeini, Zahra Bahadoran and Fereidoun Azizi

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2019 19:100

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) may face additional barriers in achieving weight loss. We aimed to compare the effects of the hypocaloric low glycemic index (LGI) diet on anthropometric varia...

    Authors: Farnaz Shishehgar, Parvin Mirmiran, Maryam Rahmati, Maryam Tohidi and Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2019 19:93

    Content type: Research article

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  38. In 2015 approximately 5.0 million people were estimated to have died from diabetes. Poor glycemic control is the most determinant of diabetes-related complication and death. The percentage of patients whose bl...

    Authors: Yitagesu Mamo, Fekede Bekele, Tadesse Nigussie and Ameha Zewudie

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2019 19:91

    Content type: Research article

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  39. The diagnosis of subacute thyroiditis (SAT) is based mainly on the presence of painful thyroid goitre and a significant increase in erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). Proceeding according to these diagnosti...

    Authors: Magdalena Stasiak, Renata Michalak and Andrzej Lewinski

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2019 19:86

    Content type: Case report

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  40. Myasthenia gravis (MG) is the most common disorder of neuromuscular transmission, and it is typified by fluctuating degrees and variable combinations of weakness in the ocular, bulbar, limb, and respiratory mu...

    Authors: Mi-Chu Lin, Ming-Hsien Tsai, Jyh-Gang Leu and Yu-Wei Fang

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2019 19:80

    Content type: Case report

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  41. Further knowledge about the pubertal development mode of girls with Turner syndrome (TS) who have undergone hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is beneficial to the proposal of an optimal HRT regimen. This study...

    Authors: Song Guo, Jun Zhang, Yanhong Li, Huamei Ma, Qiuli Chen, Hongshan Chen and Minlian Du

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2019 19:72

    Content type: Research article

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